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Managing Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Being pregnant is a beautiful feeling but it often comes with some unpleasant baggage. First and foremost of them is nausea or morning sickness. Morning sickness can be quite uncomfortable, but the good news is it gets better as the second trimester starts.

Hyperemesis gravidarum is the medical term for an uncommon disorder in which severe and persistent nausea and vomiting occurs during pregnancy. You might vomit more than four times a day, become dehydrated, feel constantly dizzy and lose substantial weight. Mild cases are usually treated with changes in diet, rest, and antacids. While severe cases require a stay in the hospital where fluid and nutrition is given through an IV. Taking any OTC medications to treat Hyperemesis Gravidarum without consulting the best gynecologist in lahore is strictly prohibited.

Causes

It is believed that Hyperemesis Gravidarum is caused by a rise in hormone levels, however the real cause is still unknown. The nausea and vomiting during pregnancy might be due to the surge of a hormone produced by the placenta called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Pregnant women begin producing HCG shortly after a fertilized egg attaches to the uterine lining.

The symptoms of Hyperemesis Gravidarum usually appear between 4-6 weeks of pregnancy and may be on the peak between 9-13 weeks. Most women get some relief in the second trimester, although around 20% of women may continue to experience hyperemesis gravidarum throughout their pregnancy. There is no known prevention of Hyperemesis gravidarum but fortunately, there are ways to manage it.

Symptoms

Hyperemesis Gravidarum is a rare condition and occurs in only about 0.5 to 2 percent of pregnancies. It causes constant nausea and severe vomiting that leads to dehydration.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum usually starts during the first trimester of pregnancy. Some of the most common symptoms of Hyperemesis Gravidarum are:

  • constant nausea
  • loss of appetite
  • frequent vomiting
  • dehydration
  • dizziness
  • loss of more than 5 percent body weight due to vomiting

Risk Factors

Some factors that could increase your risk of getting Hyperemesis Gravidarum are:

  • having a history of Hyperemesis Gravidarum in your family
  • having a multiple pregnancy, such as twins or triplets
  • being pregnant for the first time
  • Trophoblastic disease can also cause Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Trophoblastic disease occurs when there‚Äôs an abnormal growth of cells inside the uterus.

Diagnoses

Your gynecologist may diagnose hyperemesis gravidarum based on symptoms and your answers to their questions.

  • When did it start?
  • How long does it last?
  • How many times a day does it occur?
  • Whether anything relieves or makes it worse?
  • What does the vomit look like?
  • How much vomit is there?

If your gynecologist suspects you have Hyperemesis Gravidarum they will run blood and urine tests to check for dehydration and electrolyte imbalances caused by vomiting. 

Treatment

The type of treatment required to treat Hyperemesis Gravidarum depends on how severe your condition is. Some possible treatments might include:

  • Small frequent meals: Nausea and vomiting can be treated with dry foods (such as crackers) and small, frequent meals so that your stomach doesn’t remain empty for longer periods.
  • Intravenous fluids: It is important for a pregnant woman to maintain her fluid intake. Intravenous fluids might be needed if a woman continues to vomit throughout pregnancy. In severe cases, the woman might require hospitalization and be given IV fluids until she is able to take in fluids by mouth.
  • Total parenteral nutrition: The severe cases of hyperemesis gravidarum might require complex, balanced solutions of nutrients to be given via an IV throughout the pregnancy. This is called total parenteral nutrition (TPN).
  • Medicines: Medicine to prevent nausea are prescribed when vomiting is persistent and leads to causing complications for the mother or baby. If a woman is unable to take medicines orally, the drugs might be given through an IV or a suppository. Medicines used to prevent nausea include Promethazine, Meclizine and Droperidol.

Conclusion

Pregnancy complications like hyperemesis gravidarum occur only during pregnancy. They may affect the woman, the fetus, or both and may occur at different times during the pregnancy. However, like many pregnancy complications, it can be effectively managed with diet modifications and medicines.

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